SECOND TRIMESTER

THE POSTURAL CHANGES during PREGNANCY

Women feel a progressive increase in the anterior convex shape of the lumbar spine while they are pregnent. This change, named lordosis, makes to hold the center of gravity stable and above the legs as the uterus enlarges (look at it below). Late in pregnancy, aching, weakness, and numbness of the hands can happen secondary to compensatory anterior positioning of the neck and hunching of the shoulders in positional response to exaggerated lordosis. These positional responses put traction on the ulnar and median nerves, resulting in the symptoms noted above.

Hormone Relaxin in pregnancy is produced by the corpus luteum, the placenta, and part of the decidual lining of the uterus. It is believed to make remodeling of the connective tissue of the reproductive tract, particularly inducing biochemical changes of the cervix. While relaxin levels are more than 10-fold higher than non-pregnant levels, it is not always assumed that this hormone has an open effect on actual ligamentous loosening. Joint laxity and shifting center of gravity can lead to an increase in gait unsteadiness. These changes are most overstated in later pregnancy. More than 50% of gravid females say about  back pain during pregnancy, which can also be due to sacroiliac joint dysfunction or paraspinous muscle spasm.

Almost 4-6 per 1000 women will have scoliosis. This is not companied by any functional osteoporosis, although pregnancy is a high bone turnover state, on average equal to double the bone loss rates of a menopausal female, indexable losing about 2% of bone during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. Spinal changes are generally not harsh enough to influence on the pregnancy or the lung’s functional capacity. Also, the pregnancy not very often influences on the stage of lateral curvature in these cases of scoliosis. If a pregnant woman has had correction with prior Harrington distraction rod insertion, the pregnancy, labor, and delivery are not typically affected. The epidural space may be deformed, and some anesthesiologists can deny  to provide epidural anesthetics in these cases.

the CHANGES IN THE PELVIC CONTOUR

The pelvis lasts to increase up to 3 years after menarche, and this is the reason why it is more general for younger ladies, and women after menarche to have bigger risk for obstructed labor due to the relative size discrepancy between the fetal head and the maternal pelvis. Relaxin was also thought to loosen pelvic ligaments when produced from the ovaries, conducting to the growth of the pelvis, but this is not the fact in human pregnancies. The symphysis pubis can increase from 3-4 mm in nulliparas to 4.5 mm (or 8 mm) in multiparas, but during pregnancy itself the approximate separation is about 7-8 mm.

the MOVEMENTs of fetus

Many ladies feel the fetal movement before 20 weeks’ of pregnancy. Suring the first pregnancy, it may happen about 18 weeks’ of pregnancy, and in next pregnancies it can happen as early as 15-16 weeks’ of pregnancy. Early fetal movement is felt most commonly when the woman is sitting or lying calmly focusing on her body. It is generally defined as a tickle or feathery feeling under the umbilical area. As the fetus increases in size, these feelings get stronger, regular, and easier to feel. The medical term for the indication at which a woman feels the baby’s movement is quickening. Babies may move at least 4 times an hour as they get larger, and some doctors recommend the women to count fetal movement to observe the baby’s welfare.

BREAST CHANGES DURING PREGNANCY

Bumps that are noted to enlarge near the areola are named Montgomery tubercles, and they usually are shown during mid pregnancy.

 

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