Infertility: types of infertility and methods of diagnostics


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    Infertility… just stop perceiving it like a verdict. When a woman wants to have children but cannot get pregnant, this is a problem. Moreover, the problem about which it is not usual to speak openly. The main thing is to identify the cause of pathology and begin to fight it off. There is not only female but also male infertility. Let’s speak about possible diagnostic ways.

    There are two types of female infertility: primary and secondary infertility.  Primary infertility means: after at least 1 year having sex without using birth control methods no pregnancy occurred. In most cases it happens because of problems with endocrine system. Secondary infertility usually comes after inflammatory female genitalia diseases: when the pregnancy has occurred and ended (abortion, ectopic pregnancy, childbirth, etc.), but after what the woman cannot get pregnant again.

    Maybe, you ask: what are the key moments during the diagnostic? So, we’re going further. Such factors are taken into account:

    1. Anamnesis is the 1st thing to know: age, profession, living conditions, marital status, menstrual function, past pregnancies and their outcomes, past gynecological and extragenital diseases, knowing of positive pregnancy days, surgeries etc.
    2. Somatic and gynecological status is determined by length and weight of body, anthropometric indicators, abnormalities of secondary sexual characteristics, presence of hypertrichosis, hirsutism, the functional state of the cardiovascular, urinary, respiratory and other systems and organs, gynecological examination with an assessment of the external genitalia, vagina, cervix and appendages, uterus condition.
    3. Consultations of related specialists if necessary (optometrist, endocrinologist, therapeutist, etc.).
    4. Special methods of the infertility studying: bacterioscopy, colposcopy, ultrasound, hormonal, immunological and radiological studies according to indications, laparoscopy (after all other research methods).

    What is the main cause of infertility? It depends on the localization:

    • tubal infertility: because of organic or functional pathology;
    • peritoneal infertility: develops for the same reasons as tubal infertility, is the result of adhesions caused by inflammatory diseases, surgical interventions in the genitalia or abdominal cavity;
    • endocrine: all forms of primary and secondary amenorrhea, follicular and luteal phase insufficiency, ovarian and adrenal hyperandrogenemia, hyperprolactinemia, etc.;
    • immunological: associated with the antigenic properties of sperm and ovum, as well as with immune responses against these antigens, while sperm antibodies are found not only in blood serum, but also in cervical mucus. Antisperm antibodies can cause woman infertility to the husband’s sperm;
    • infertility associated with malformations and anatomical abnormalities in the reproductive system;
    • infertility of a psychogenic nature: associated with various disorders of the psychoemotional sphere, prolonged psychosomatic stress;
    • uterine form: multiple degenerative changes of the endometrium;
    • extragenital form: somatic diseases can directly affect generative function or indirectly through developing hormonal disorders.

    Male infertility. Yes, sometimes men deny their inability to have children for their own reason, but the practice shows so many cases of not having children because of the man’s health problems. When it happens? There are secretory — due to spermatogenesis disorder and excretory — due to sperm excretion disorder.

    Let’s speak about kinds, classification of male infertility:

    • Impaired regulation of testicular function: impaired secretion of FSH and LH, hyperprolactinemia;
    • Primary disorders in the testis: idiopathic, varicocele, chromosomal pathology (Kleinfelter’s syndrome), cryptorchidism, orchitis, immunological etc.;
    • Obstruction of the vas deferens: congenital, inflammatory origin;
    • Disorders of additional gonads: prostatitis, vesiculitis, congenital absence of spermatic cord or seminal vesicles;
    • Violations of sexual life: rare sex, hypospadias, impotence, hypospadias, retrograde ejaculation.

    Psychological factors are also very important. There can be no visible reason, but think about your psychological condition. Do you feel permanent stress or just little stress situations happens to you 100 times a day? Are you satisfied with your life?

    What to do? Examination and diagnostics plan:

    1) clinical and anamnestic data;

    2) clinical and laboratory examinations;

    3) doctor’s examination;

    4) spermogram.

    Spermogram will show if you have normozoospermia, oligozoospermia, teratozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, azoospermia, aspermia. The doctor explains in detail the essence of the diagnosis and what the next steps of treatment will be in case of any violations.

    To sum up, you see that sometimes it’s not an easy task to understand the reason of infertility and it is need to pass thousands of examinations before understand the correct kind of treatment. ADONIS Medical Center has all the latest equipment and highly qualified specialists, who will find the best solution of making your life happier with a baby.